Stage lighting is too-often an underappreciated art for theatregoers. Not only does light illuminate the action you’re watching, it also directly affects the emotion and and subtext of a scene. Would Romeo and Juliet be as swoonworthy without just the right wash of romantic colors? Would Medea be as terrifying without those bloody reds washed across the stage as she enacts her vengeance? Would Streetcar be as touching in that denouement without those twilight hues?
In short, stage lighting isn’t just illumination. It’s design. Art. Emotion. Subtext.
It’s one of those things: If you haven’t noticed stage lighting before, you may have taken the emotion it brings for granted. But once you notice it – or better yet, enter its world – you’ll notice it forever after. It’s a beautiful and often subtle and nuanced entrance into the world of stagecraft and design.
The Early Days of Stage Lighting
We’re used to a world of snazzy computers, color gels, and all sorts of electronic awesomeness, but the early days of stage performance in human history? Not so lucky. They had to be ingenious, using candles, torches, flames and simple lighting effects to illuminate and shade the action being played out onstage.
In the early days of Greek theatre, for instance, most plays were staged in daylight, to simplify production and to take fullest advantage of the sunshine.
But by Shakespeare’s time, even though many productions were still taking advantage of natural light through afternoon stagings, stage lighting nevertheless encompassed everything from the candles behind the footlights, to the use of torches, candles, and rudimentary coverings to allow for more control of the lighting from scene to scene.
Modern Stage Lighting Elements
Today’s stage lighting tools are a heady combination of technology and creativity, and truly allow designers to let their imaginations take flight. Requiring their own vocabulary of sorts, the tools of today’s lighting designers are high-tech marvels that are a far cry from the rudimentary candles and torches of old, but all accomplish the same goal, that of beautiful illumination for the action onstage. In the performing arts, light itself is a part of the performance, and the work of the lightboard operator can often feel very much like an interactive dance of sorts.
Some of the most popular lighting tools today include the following mainstays:
This basic spotlight’s name comes from its lens type. Used in conjunction with lighting gels to create innumerable colors and atmospheres onstage, Fresnel lighting is soft and rich and provides most of the ‘fill’ in onstage lighting.
Ellipsoidal Spotlight, or LekoWhen I was learning lighting design light-years ago (see what I did there? Sorry), these were typically ‘Lekos,’ although the term’s used less frequently today. These lamps are versatile and able to be highly controlled – a Leko is the butter to a Fresnel’s bread. Lekos provide a harder-edged, stronger light whose beams can be easily manipulated or changed with shutters, gobos (cutout shapes and patterns), and more. Your basic stage lighting setup is usually accomplished with a mixture of Fresnels and Ellipsoidal spots.
Follow SpotFollow spots are large, oversized, separate, and expensive spotlights. Very expensive. They’re generally run by a spot operator whose sole job is to maintain, point, and focus the spotlight.
PAR Lamp (or “PAR Can”)The "PAR" in PAR Lamp stands for "parabolic aluminized reflector," and it's a simple, inexpensive, and popular floodlight for concerts or touring. You can actually buy complementary fixtures for PAR lamps at home warehouse or supply stores, and it’s often called a "PAR Can" because in some cases the 'can' around a PAR lamp actually is... a can. So adding one to your setup can be a simple procedure – slap it in the can, clip on a gel, hang or clamp it, you name it.
Beam ProjectorA beam projector is a lenseless, reflective lamp with a tight, focused beam that is often used to create a hard, dramatic wash of light from above the performer.
Ellipsoidal Reflector Floodlights (Scoops) and Box FloodsThese floodlights are typically used to light the backdrop or cyc, to provide broad washes, or to illuminate scenic elements onstage.
Striplights, or Lighting StripsThese rows of lighting elements are typically used to light backdrops, scrims and cycloramas, and are often wired into multiple circuits for greater dimmer control from the lightboard. Today, LED striplights are becoming increasingly popular, as they use less power, but they’re also not as powerful in strength.
No matter what you call them, put all these elements together, and your production will truly shine!